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HSK詞匯題解題指南
HSK詞匯題解題指南

HSK詞匯題解題指南
Guide to Problem Solutions of the Vocabulary Part of the HSK Test

在HSK試卷中,詞匯是一個非常重要的測試內容,也是我們的讀者十分重視的一個方面。要想答好HSK試卷的詞匯題,最重要的當然是盡可能多地在平時的學習中擴大自己的詞匯量,掌握好常用詞匯的讀音、詞性,尤其是詞義。當然,了解HSK試卷的一些特點及答題的技巧,可以幫助自己有針對復習和答題,從而提高考試成績。

The Chinese vocabulary deserves due attention from our readers as it constitutes a very important part in the HSK test.For a desirable test result,it is advisable for the reader to be familiar with the characteristics of the HSK test paper andtest techniques,apart from a fairly good mastery of the vocabulary including thepronunciations,the parts of speech and the meanings of the words.

一、試卷詞匯題的構成和特點
Format and Characteristics of the Vocabulary Questions

HSK詞匯題主要集中在閱讀理解的第一部分和綜合填空的第一部分。這兩部分的詞匯題又各有測試重點。

The vocabulary questions are mainly included in the first part of reading Comprehension and Blank Filling of the HSK test.

1.閱讀理解第一部分中的詞匯題
Vocabulary questions in the first part of Reading Comprehension

這一部分主要是測試學生兩方面的能力:a.在特定的定語境中對多義詞詞義
的判斷能力;b.根據上下文意思推斷詞義的能力。

This part mainly tests the students’abilities in the following two aspects:a.
understanding the different meanings of polysemous words in certain contexts,and
b.inferring meanings from the contexts.

從詞性來看,這部分的詞主要是名詞、動詞、形容詞、副詞和一些常用習語?匆粋例子:
eg:
Mostly,nouns,verbs,adjectives,adverbs and idioms are tested in this part,

[1]她愛人帶著孩子去南方了。
A.丈夫
B.妻子
C.男朋友
D.喜歡的人

這個題顯然是測試對名詞“愛人”意義的理解。
To solve this problem,the correct comprehension of the noun“愛人”is required.

從難度來看,一般60%一70%選自甲、乙級詞,30%左右是丙級詞,另有5%左右選自三級詞以外。不過,乙級詞最多。

In terms of difficulty,60%-70%of the words tested in this part are selected
from the phases A and B,about 30%from Phase C,and the rest 5%from else.
where.Most of the words are from Phase B.

從形式來看,如果一個題目中劃線詞是高頻詞(如甲級詞),那么備選答案一定是低頻詞(如丙級詞)。反之,如果題目中劃線詞是低頻詞(如丙級詞),那么備選答案一定是高頻詞(如甲、乙級詞)?聪旅娴睦樱

If the word underlined in a question is a frequenfly used word(a word from
Phase A),then the words provided for choice are usually not frequently used ones
(words from Phase C).On the other hand,if the word underlined is not a common
words(from Phase C),the words for choice are usually commonly used ones(the
words from the phases A and B).e.g.

[2]我們的意見他根本不聽。
A.反映
B.接受
C.理解
D.懷疑

題中的劃線詞“聽”是高頻詞,是學生很熟悉的,而備選詞的使用頻率則相對較低。

In the above example,“聽”is a common word,while the words for choice are not
SO frequently used.

[3]這幾年,他們家買了冰箱,添了彩電,日子過得挺美。
A.夠
B.方便
C.滿意
D.漂亮

題中劃線的“美”是低頻詞,幾個備選答案則是高頻詞。
Here,“美”is not a common word,but the words for choice are quite common.

綜合填空第一部分的詞匯題
2
Vocabulary questions in the first part of Blank Filling
麗買的這一件,又美觀,又142。

141.
A.精確
B.精致
142.
A.實用
B.實在
兩組備選詞因為分別含有“精”和“實”,
A.精彩
B.實際
C.精神
D.實惠

不一定有聯系。這就需要考生能夠抗干擾,準確地辨別。
The two sets of words provided for choice contain“精”and“實”respectively and
their likeliness to each other will probably make the students confused.However,
they are not necessarily related to each other in meanings.The students,therefore,are required to distinguish them correctly.

此外,還有其他類型的題目,比如不同詞性的詞在一起,要求準確地選擇
Moreover,the students should also pay attention to the different parts ofspeech of the words.

二、答題技巧
Test Techniques

1.注意利用句子提供的語言環
句子的組成部分可以為我們提供答題的線索。根據這樣的線索就可以推斷劃線詞的意思?蠢樱

The students should make a good use of the language situation as it very often
provides a hint for deducing the correct meaning of the word underlined,eg.

This part mainly tests the students’abilities to understand the language in the context and to differentiate synonyms,near synonyms and the words with similarforms,e.g.

這一部分主要是考核學生對上下文的理解能力和對反義詞、近義詞甚至是形近詞的辨析能力。

141——142

昨天我們去參觀了一個展覽,展覽會上的工藝品件件都 141,尤其是瑪 [4]人們總是幫助自己喜歡的人,而對自己厭惡的人,情況則完全不同。

A.害怕
B.有好感
C.不認識
D.不喜歡

假如你沒有學過“厭惡”這個詞,沒關系,上下文可以幫助你。前面是說“總是幫助自己喜歡的人”,后面說“情況則完全不同”,這種環境實際告訴我們,前后的情況是相反的,和“自己喜歡的人”相反的當然應該是“自己不喜歡的人”,所以“厭惡”應該是“不喜歡”的意思,答案是D?梢娬Z言環境很重要,應該充分利用。Here,the context“總是幫助自己喜歡的人”and“情況則完全不同”are very helpful to those not familiar with the word“厭惡”,as they imply that the oppositeto“自己喜歡的人”must be“自己不喜歡的人”.Therefore,the correct choice“D.不喜歡”can be easily made.

2.注意正確使用排除法

排除法就是根據自己已經掌握的知識排除掉不可能的答案,使目標范圍縮小的方法。運用好排除法是提高答題效果的關鍵?蠢樱

Another technique that works very effectively is to rule out the choices thatare obviously wrong so that there are less possibilities left for the correctanswer,eg:

143——144

甲:飯菜都擺好了,大家143吧。
乙:來來來,大伙兒舉杯,干杯!
丙:找個144的機會,再叫上王文,到我家好好聚一聚。
甲:好極了。

143.
A.動作
B.動員
C.動手
D.動身

144.
A.適用
B.適應
C.適合
D.適當

這段對話是一個吃飯的環境,因此跟表示“出發”意思的“動身”沒關系,跟“動員”(勸別人做某事)的意思也沒關系。排除了143的B和D,再看剩下的A和C,根據已經了解的知識,“動作”這個詞一般是作名詞用,而“大家……吧”這個結構里應該是用動詞,這樣又排除了A,143的答案只能是C。

Since this dialogue is about some people who are eating at a table,it isobvious that“動身”(1 43.D)which means“出發”and“動員”(1 43.B 1 which means“to talk someone into doing something”have nothing to do with the situation.So these two can be ruled out.Then,for the structure“大家……吧”,a verb is needed.Therefore,the noun“動作”(143.A)is not suit.able.Only 143.C is the correct answer.

從上面的例子中可以看出,運用好排除法對于答好試卷會有很大的幫助。當然,在準備考試的時候,最重要的還是要盡量多地了解和掌握那些意義相同
或相近(同義詞和近義詞)、詞形相像的詞的不同用法。

From the above examples,it can be seen clearly that test techniques will be ofgreat help.However,it is more important for the students to have a good command
of the vocabulary including synonyms and those words that look alike but are different in meanings(synonyms and near synonyms).

 

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